Birnbaum & Kaku

www.Kaku1000.com

September 22, 2014

Birnbaum & Kaku

 

 

Potentialism & Modern Cosmology: Juxtaposing David Birnbaum v. Michio Kaku

 

Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential is a radical departure from anything proposed in the last 7,000 years or so.

 

Founder of Potentialism David Birnbaum, independent metaphysicist and Manhattan native, entered the world arena in 1988 when he proposed his ground breaking and audacious new theory of cosmology – Potentialism. In his masterful three-part Summa Metaphysica treatise, Birnbaum describes a universe not random and pointless, but defined by its innate core cosmic drive –infinite Quest for Infinite Potential; this inexorable drive is toward a cosmic end-goal/horizon – the infinitely extraordinary (see www.Sequence1000.com).

For precision, note the subtitles of the treatise: Summa Metaphysica I: Religious Man (Ktav, 1988), Summa Metaphysica II: Spiritual Man (New Paradigm Matrix, 2005) and Summa Metaphysica III: Secular Man (New Paradigm Matrix, 2014). See www.Philosophy1000.com. Birnbaum is extrapolating his key theme through multiple lenses – through a Religious lens, a Spiritual lens, and finally, a Secular lens. See www.SummaMetaphysica.com

Potentialism states as its most basic the concept that (infinite) Quest for Potential (infinitely iterated) seeks-after the (infinitely) Extraordinary. By formula this would be expressed-as: Q4P → E+.

This is an expression of the hypothesized core cosmological drive to the effect that infinite Quest for Potential (shorthand: Q4P) inexorably drives the cosmos towards higher and higher states of Extraordinariation (shorthand: E+). See www.TTOE1000.com for an academic review of the theory.

Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential is a radical departure from anything proposed in the last 7,000 years or so. However, the theory is compelling and elegant; after 25+ years of vetting and after major scrutiny at a major 3 ½ day international academic conference at Bard College in 2012, no flaw has been discerned in it (see www.SummaCoverage.com).

Extraordinariation, or E+, is what Birnbaum identifies as a cosmic end game, a goal/horizon state of the almost unimaginable extraordinary – in all realms – physical and mental. This target horizon denouement is beyond sheer mathematical expression, encompassing aspects of emotional, intuitive, logical and physical complexity beyond current understanding.

Are you overdosing from Summa terms? Not to worry; there are more.

What is the name of the process whereby Q4P advances towards E+? It is Complexification (shorthand: C+). Complexification is the inexorable process of seeking greater complexity/sophistication/richness/integration/variety/wondrousness. Thus, for example, the evolvement of multi-cellular organisms from single-cell organisms was a product of C+; the evolvement of humans from primates was a result of C+.

Thus C+ (Complexification) is a busy camper, hard at work as the ‘handmaiden of overarching Q4P (Quest for Potential). Really not so complicate once you get-the-hang-of-it. All three key dynamics, Q4P, C+, and E+ are all potential-driven at their core. So the more expanded formula would be: Q4P >>> C+ >>> E+. Note that metaphysicist Birnbaum’s roots are within Modern Orthodox Judaism, and at first his young kids feared that he was inventing a new religion.

Kaku

Theoretical physicist Michio Kaku has made a name for himself both for his work as a string field theoretician as well as for his work as a futurist. Kaku is a household name for his work on showcasing science and bringing it to the lay person. He is also a very articulate proponent of technology.

To Kaku, the future lies squarely in the realm of technology. His theories revolve around the merging of humankind with future technology – to elevate the capabilities of humans to include such powers as ESP and teleportation. While some of his theories may seem far-fetched, Kaku is prepared to supply real evidence regarding his predictions that force the scientific world to treat him as a force to be reckoned with.

Regarding his cosmological theories, Kaku’s theories are a mesh of technology and consciousness. Kaku regularly delves deep into the realm of quantum physics to explain the importance of sentient beings, their awareness of the universe, and how consciousness is a tool to not only observe reality, but to help shape it.

Agree on Complexification in Evolution

Birnbaum views evolution as driven by Complexification (which incorporates survivability as a sub-component), as opposed-to stand-alone classic survival-oriented theories. Per Birnbaum, evolution clearly follows a design/direction transcending survivability. Thus, per Birnbaum Natural Selection would select the available gene mix which optimally suits the objectives of Complexification.

Kaku does not engage that deeply in Evolution, but his general theories of inexorable human advance are in consonance with Birnbaum’s.

Agree on Advance in Intellectual Complexity

In recent millennia, each change in the minds of sentient beings has led to greater and greater degrees of intellectual complexity. Birnbaum points out that until such changes in Complexity arrive, it is hard to predict what nature they will actually arrive in. Birnbaum and Kaku are of one mind that heading for more advanced Complexification is the natural course of humanity’s future.

Agree on Cosmic Consciousness & Observation

Kaku and Birnbaum are in consonance on Cosmic Consciousness.

Kaku points out that the quantum nature of the universe requires observation. It is commonly noted that photons act as both waves and particles. They act as waves before being observed. But once a photon has been observed, the trajectory of the photon becomes that of a particle. In more simple terms, a photon has a probable trajectory – its path is not precise, thus indeterminate. The act of observing the photon actually forces it to choose a single, concrete path it is to take in reality.

Kaku notes that this power of observation has a physical effect on reality. Thus, it can be deduced that consciousness is a physical force in the universe. This has broad implications on reality as a whole. For one, Kaku points out that this phenomenon is not relegated to photons alone. Logically speaking, it requires an observer for anything to exist in what we consider static reality. Even for a person to exist, it requires someone else to have observed them, thus changing their existence from a potential to a reality.

The biggest conundrum, though, is tracing this theory back to universal origin. Something had to have witnessed the Big Bang for it to have occurred in a meaningful way. To Kaku, this is the big puzzle, the ultimate unknown question. For the cosmos to have formed and solidified in reality, a cosmic consciousness would have had to exist to bear witness to it – be it God or something else.

Birnbaum’s Potentialism fills-in the blanks

Birnbaum’s theory on the other hand, de facto answers the above question: The universe had – and will always have had – an observer, Potential. Whether that entity or power has intelligence as we would understand it, Birnbaum says is unknown. But Potential has always existed and, as it is capable of purposefully shaping the evolution of the cosmos; then it satisfies Kaku’s rule that the universe must have had an observer.

Why is this? Because Potential moves with an inherently intelligent drive. Potential reacts with care and precision when selecting its course of Complexity. This implies that Potential moves with the ability to reason and make informed decision – one of the basic tenants of intelligence. Humankind itself is a product of Potential, as well, and is obviously intelligent.

Birnbaum & the ‘cosmic observer’

It could be argued, of course, that humankind has not always existed. But, Birnbaum notes that Potential rests on a super-position regarding linear time. That is to say, as a closed loop system, Potential effects in the future can have effects in the past as well. As Extraordinariation is a cosmic end and Potential is a cosmic beginning, their interaction necessarily is not subject to classic linear time; thus Potential driven towards Extraordinariation is quite conceivably its own observer (see www.summametaphysica.com/extraordinariation/).

Extrapolators of Birnbaum might well surmise that the cosmos is all one infinite and morphing quantum-organic ‘entity.’ Hence, the ‘entity’ would be merely observing itself. Thus, Birnbaum’s metaphysics does not mandate a separate and distinct ‘observer’ per se in order to fulfill the ‘cosmic observer’ imperative.

The CCNY / Harvard Connection

[ note: CCNY is City College New York ]

Kaku is a graduate of Harvard College B.A. ’68 and teaches theoretical physics at CCNY’s Institute for Advanced Study. Birnbaum is a graduate of CCNY Engineering ’72 and of Harvard University Graduate School of Business School ’74. Both currently work in Manhattan.

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“A major work…a great intellectual and spiritual effort”

- Joseph Dan, Professor of Kabbalah, Hebrew University, Israel

Calculus

December 16, 2014

Calculus

 

Summa Metaphysica & Calculus

David Birnbaum's Potentialism Theory and Isaac Newton's Calculus

Calculus is the study of (iterative) change, just as geometry is the study of shape. David Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential is, at its core, a study of (iterative) change, as well. See XFactor1000.com.

David Birnbaum's groundbreaking work on Potentialism lays out the foundation for a new cosmological theory. In his three-part treatise Summa Metaphysica (detail below), Birnbaum delineates the universe as driven by an inherent Infinite Quest for Potential. See xMIT1000.com.

The Conceptual Theorist describes an overarching formula, Q4P → E+: Infinite Quest for Potential (shorthand: Q4P) drives ever-forward and ever-closer towards ultimate Potential, which Birnbaum labels as Extraordinariation (shorthand: E+). See Glossary1000.com.

This is Birnbaum’s proposed fundamental governing principle (SuperLaw) of universal design. Based on both physics and mathematical foundations, Birnbaum's work parlays smoothly with Newtonian calculus on multiple levels.

To Newton, the purpose of the development of calculus was, first and foremost, to add to the tools he had at hand – both to describe planetary motions and to assist him in his other works in physics. Calculus allowed Newton to describe – in great detail – the mathematics of gravitational effects, such as the elliptical orbits of the planets in the solar system he observed.

Potentialism Theory (aka Quest for Potential Theory aka Q4P-Theory) dovetails smoothly, doubling down on calculus so to speak, to further Newton's work; Summa Metaphysica adds the metaphysics necessary to describe the why of calculus, following Newton's own observations of the how of calculus.

In essence, Birnbaum picks up where Newton left off, bringing to bear 21st century science – and Birnbaum’s Potentialism conceptual breakthrough – to Newton's 17th century body of work. Potentialism not only conceptually uses calculus in its own theoretical work, but Potentialism also helps explain why calculus exists and helps to govern the cosmic order.

Of course, there are many other works which have expanded on both Newton's physics and mathematics, most notably Einstein's General Relativity. Then again, Birnbaum’s Potentialism wraps-around Einstein, as well (see https://www.summametaphysica.com/einstein-summa/).

Calculus is generally divided into two branches: Differential Calculus and Integral Calculus. The calculus field holds a special place in the heart of Potentialism because it relates to Birnbaum’s theory via both of its branches:

(a) Differential Calculus handles celestial gravitation, and gravitation is a physical expression of one of Potentialism's most basic dynamics at work and (b) Integral Calculus provides the mathematics for iteration towards an essentially idealized goal.

re: (a) Differential Calculus

Potentialist physical dynamics are expressed in terms of interrelationships, spiral geometric mathematics and complex structures. On a cosmic scale, gravity is the great common relation amongst the universal bodies. While seemingly subtle and referred to as the “weak” fundamental force, gravity stretches across the expanse of galaxies and galactic clusters, drawing together matter and energy into complex formations that could not exist without its force, causing space itself to bend under its power.

On a metaphysical level, this attractive force is expressed in terms of the pull of (Birnbaum’s) Extraordinariation (E+). Unseen, E+ reaches across the expanse of the universe, as the catalyst-for and pull-for the Quest for Infinite Potential. The product of Q4P is embodied as the creative forces of matter and energy that coalesce to give us such things as the sun, with its light and heat, and the great complexity that is the living earth.

“Weak” force is an ironic term for something that can do so much and so universally. To Potentialism, gravity is a real-space echo of the presence of Extraordinariation – the most fundamental pull of universal evolution.

Additionally, integral calculus is a strong proof of Potentialist theory. The most popular competing theory of cosmology currently is Randomness – the supposition that the universe is random, decaying, without meaning or goal. But integral calculus is just one in a long list of tools Potentialists use to disperse such fundamentally blind theories as Randomness. See https://www.summametaphysica.com/huff-post-uk/.

re: (b) Integral Calculus

Integral calculus itself gives form to the un-measurable. In a universe where Randomness proponents see only the unknowable, integral calculus gives a basic mathematical tool to assess and understand and mathematically plot the infinitely complex. In counter-Randomness terms, integral calculus shows that what lies beyond the limitations of current science to fully measure, does not mean that it is random; only that it is of a greater complexity than can be absolutely qualified at this point in scientific history. Further, integral calculus shows mathematically that even what cannot be perfectly measured, can be done so with such extraordinary precision that the difference can be meaningless.

Potentialism Theory (aka Quest for Potential Theory aka Q4P-Theory) again parlays this mathematical function further to describe the conceptualization of the Quest for Potential and its drive towards Extraordinariation. On a philosophical and metaphysical level, this is a clear mandate that while such concepts as hyper-complexity and Extraordinariation themselves itself may not be known perfectly, we can find echoes of Extraordinariation’s effect in the physical (and mathematical) universe. As the cosmos drives towards greater and greater super-complexity, we will continue on our path ever-closer towards Extraordinariation and understand it with ever increasing clarity (see PotentialismTheory.com).

Newton’s Calculus and Birnbaum’s Potentialism echo the same message: “Some things cannot be absolutely known perfectly; however we can iteratively (infinitely) vector-in very close to perfection.”

The Summa / Potentialism Theory series:

Summa Metaphysica I: Religious Man: God and Evil (Ktav, 1988);
Summa Metaphysica II: Spiritual Man: God and Good (New Paradigm Matrix, 2005);
Summa Metaphysica III: Secular Man: The Transcendent Dynamic (New Paradigm Matrix, 2014).

Potentialism Theory: Dovetailing: MIT & NYU

Recent hi-level academic works dovetailing with Birnbaum's Theory include the following:

Programming the Universe (Knopf, 2006) by Professor of Quantum Mechanics Seth Lloyd of MIT;
Mind & Cosmos (Oxford Press, 2012) by Professor of Philosophy & Law Thomas Nagel of NYU;
Our Mathematical Universe (Knopf, 2014) by Professor of Physics Max Tegmark of MIT.

Context:

Summa Metaphysica has been the prime focus of a major international academic conference (see Conference1000.com); it has been a Course Text at over a dozen colleges globally and the prime focus of well over one hundred feature articles, reviews etc. (see SummaCoverage.com).

Over 50,000 volumes of the various Summa books are in circulation; the complete 3-volume work is available gratis on the book’s SummaMetaphysica.com site in flip-book form, as well as in softcover and electronic form via conventional channels.

Paradigm Challenge

Via his revolutionary Potentialism Theory (de facto Theory of Everything) David Birnbaum has instigated a global paradigm challenge (see PotentialismTheory.com/ParadigmChallenge/). Birnbaum himself is either the author or the editor-in-chief of several noteworthy series (see Major1000.com).

Historical notes:

Both Sir Isaac Newton (England, 1642-1726) and Gottfried Wilhelm Liebniz (Holy Roman Empire, 1646-1716) are credited with independently inventing/discerning/delineating calculus; however Newton has a slight historical edge in the matter.

With regards to Leibniz, note that he, like Birnbaum, dealt extensively with the philosophical issue of theodicy: If there is an all-powerful and all-merciful God, why is there gross evil. Birnbaum is in consonance with Leibniz on one of the building blocks of Leibniz regarding theodicy, to the effect that our universe was/is the best possible universe as regards these matters (good and evil); Birnbaum, of course, deploys his hypothesized Infinite Quest for Potential as centerpiece in lancing theodicy; Leibniz was not attuned to Birnbaum’s later 20th century ‘insight.’ See Summametaphysica.com/first-summa-reviews/.

 

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“a highly original and imaginative synthesis… Written with lucidity and deep conviction this book will prove highly stimulating to the layman and the scholar.”

- Joseph Schultz, Professor of Judaic Studies, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO

Causal Loop

August 5, 2014

Causal Loop

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David Birnbaum’s Potentialism Philosophy:

The (Sole) Close Causal Loop Metaphysics

By Mark Davis

Potentialism, as envisioned by iconoclast conceptual theorist David Birnbaum, has been heralded as the one true closed causal loop metaphysics. Potentialism is detailed in Birnbaum's Summa Metaphysica I, II and III (Ktav Publishing, 1988; New Paradigm Matrix, 2005; and New Paradigm Matrix, 2014, respectively). The treatise elucidates the overarching force of cosmic design. Encapsulated, the Birnbaum theory hypothesizes that one single dynamic – Quest for Potential (infinitely recursive) – ignited and drives-forth the entire cosmic order to this day. Its hypothesized goal is (Birnbaum’s coined term) Extraordinariation (see www.summametaphysica.com/extraordinariation/).

In it, Birnbaum elucidates the inter-related dynamics of Quest for Potential (as ‘cosmic push’) and Extraordinariation (as ‘cosmic pull’). The cosmic loop can be expressed as:

Quest for Potential < loop > Extraordinariation
or using shorthand notation
Q4P < loop > E+

In Birnbaumian cosmology, the universe follows a clear destination: As the universe builds in Potential – the Potential for what it can and will be – it strives towards ever greater, infinite complexity towards a state of Extraordinariation. Evidence of this Infinite Quest for Potential can be seen in empirical observations of what Birnbaum refers to as Quantum Jumps (shorthand: QJ) – watershed moments where the universe can be seen to quantum step-up its inherent Complexity/Sophistication (see www.Glossary1000.com)

Birnbaum refers to these ‘QJ’ moments as quantum in nature, because they are clear expressions of undeniable step-up growth in Complexity: When the first atoms formed, when photons decoupled from matter, when the first molecules formed. These are undeniable truths in the galactic history which fundamentally changed the operations of physics itself (see PotentialismTheory.com/ParadigmChallenge/).

But what is specifically at issue here is the closed causal loop nature of Potentialism—the only metaphysics which – ever – to have managed to suffer and survive the arrows of all challengers. The Theory of Potential happens-to-be, as well, a ‘closed-loop metaphysics. Serious cosmologists have posited that the optimal metaphysics would indeed be a ‘closed loop’ metaphysic – as no external force is needed to actualize it.

To illuminate the closed causal nature of Potentialism, it is easiest to envision Potentialism as a spiral of cause and effect. Indeed, spiral forms are a central dynamic of Potentialism. The ‘spiral’ is apparent in both the trajectory of solar systems as well as in greater galactic structures. And, according to Potentialism, anything that is universally true, often has a physical manifestation in the physical universe itself.

Quest for Infinite Potential drives-forward towards Infinite Complexity/Sophistication – which-in turn seeks-after its own Potential.
Q4P > E+ > Q4P > E+ > Q4P > E+ ad infinitum

(‘Cosmic push’) Quest for Potential advances towards (‘cosmic pull’) Extraordinariation. In-tandem this spiral causes the universe to seek after its own Potential - infinitely and inexorably.

The dynamic is often viewed by Potentialists themselves as a spiral, as one causes/energizes another, in an ongoing spiraling loop. This is the inherent closed causal loop we speak of. A true, closed causal loop should be both the instigator and result of itself.

Paul Davies, in the Goldilocks Enigma (Penguin Press, 2006), described such a closed causal loop:
“A fully satisfactory explanatory loop would have to yield a complete explanation for everything, laws included. It should also tell us why those laws are bio-friendly.” And, indeed our Theory of Potential loop does both (a) provide a universal explanation and (b) is bio-friendly because bio is a route via life to Extraordiariation.

To John Wheeler, a closed causal loop goes one step further. Wheeler introduced the participatory principle. Wheeler states that in a closed causal system, the universe needs not only to be self-creating, but it must also contain observers – in short, the universe must create its own awareness to fulfill its state of closed causality. Wheeler is recognized as a giant in Physics. He collaborated with the likes of Einstein, Neil Bohr and Richard Feynman. Wheeler’s Participatory Anthropic Principle, which states the need for the universe to have a conscious observer for its full existence, carries not insignificant weight in the scientific community.

Accepting Wheeler's challenge is Potentialism (see www.PotentialismTheory.com). In a Potentialist universe, the universe itself necessarily moves towards greater and greater complexity. And it necessarily incorporates the birth of conscious observation, as it is a necessary step towards the ever increasing Complexity/Sophistication of the cosmos.

It is no happenstance that Q4P and E+ can sit on either side of the Potentialist cosmic equation. They are both, the beginning and end, the alpha and omega. To understand this fully, we must look at the nature of each (see www.SummaCoverage.com)
‘Cosmic push’ Potential is drawn forward by ‘cosmic pull’ Extraordinariation – which itself is an infinite multiplicity of Potentials seeking after Extraordinariation – which
a) ongoing instigates Quest for Potential; the two dynamics ratchet-off of each other; the greater the one, the greater the other, and
b) in a cosmos which has components of circularity in time, Extraordinariation possibly loops-around, and catches-a-ride on Quest for Potential to supercharge the in-tandem quest

– both components in an infinite ratcheting/looping. Sort of a Cosmic Particle Accelerator in a spiral loop; only here it is a Cosmic Potential Accelerator.

As one can readily see, en toto this fits the definition of a ‘closed causal system’ which Wheeler and Davies have both sought. The Potentialism system is both the result and cause of itself. While Wheeler and Davies were seeking a single element, what they really needed to look for was a single ‘concept’ or ‘dynamic’. And Potentialism clearly provides both ‘concept’ and ‘dynamic’: Potential is both the cause-of and the result-of the universe itself. Birnbaum's simple, elegant, innately intuitive core formula of cosmology is:

Q4P → E+

Quest for Potential within Potential > is both ignited-by and seeks-after >
the infinite multiplicities of Potential (Extraordinariation)
– themselves questing after their in-tandem infinite potentials.

Thus, the (sole) closed causal loop.

The ‘initial’ spark? Not so simple at all. A cosmic veil cloaks this component. On some level, the very possibility of Extraordinariation ‘down-the-road’ retroactively sparks the process. But of course intuitively we now know, that both metaphysical PUSH (Q4P) and metaphysical PULL (E+) in-concert exerted sufficient (neo-sexual) ‘friction’ to produce the ‘initial spark.’ One can hypothesize simply that if there were no drive whatsoever inherent in cosmic realms to advance/complexify/potentialize, then we simply would have Nothing.

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“David Birnbaum has opened up a new avenue of approach…novel hypothesis clearly and attractively presented…a remarkably informed study… It is a very impressive piece of work which should provoke considerable discussion and debate.”

- Donald Gray, Professor of Religious Studies, Manhattan College, New York, NY

Clash of Two Worlds

March 20, 2014

Clash of Two Worlds

 

Clash of Two Worlds

 

Birnbaum’s Potentialism vs. Atkin’s Randomness/Atheism

 

There are two worldviews currently prominent in the academic fields of science and philosophy: private scholar David Birnbaum’s Potentialism Theory and the well-entrenched Randomness Theory of the atheist academic community.

In one corner we have quintessential ‘outsider’ David Birnbaum, of Manhattan, the yeshiva-educated and Harvard -educated metaphysicist who developed Potentialism Theory. Over a dozen journals have featured Birnbaum’s Summa Metaphysica and its Theory of Potential in the 2013-2014 period alone.

‘Outsider’ Birnbaum’s intellectual counter-party is ultimate ‘insider’ Peter Atkins of England, a retired Oxford don and chemist, champion of Randomness Theory and of Atheism. These two protagonists have been at loggerheads since Atkins presented his point of view at the April 2012 Bard College (Upstate NY) 4-day international academic conference which focused on Birnbaum’s philosophical treatise Summa Metaphysica.

A point-by-point analysis shows their differences to be many and varied:

Birnbaum’s universe has a defined eternal origin – Infinite Potential;
Atkins’s schema does not handle cosmic origins.

Birnbaum’s universe has goal – it seeks the most extraordinary Potential;
Atkins’s universe is directionless/aimless/clueless.

Birnbaum’s universe-view is optimistic;
Atkins’s universe-view is pessimistic.

Birnbaum’s universe is organic and full of potential;
Atkins’s universe is non-organic, barren, nihilistic.

Birnbaum’s universe contains an overarching dynamic – Infinite Potential.
Atkins’s universe has no place for transcendence in any shape or form.

Birnbaum presents his theory systematically;
Atkins’s Randomness theory is neither structured nor codified.

Birnbaum’s model has room for a spectrum of views ranging from Religious to Spiritual to Secular (encompassing ~99% of the global population);
Atkins’s model only has room for hard-line atheism (thus embracing ~1% of the global population).

Birnbaum’s universe values the aesthetic, the spiritual and the individual;
Atkins’s universe treats these three as insignificant cosmic accidents, at best.

Birnbaum’s model of Potentialism is elegant and well-designed;
Atkins’s model of Randomness is chaotic.

Birnbaum’s theory end-point is advancement and growth;
Atkins’s theory end-point is decay and reduction.

Birnbaum keeps ideology (institutionalized religion) and metaphysics separate;
Atkins (dangerously) mixes ideology (hardline atheism) with metaphysics.

Birnbaum believes that religious thought and spirituality can be elegant and metaphysically anchored to the very core of the cosmic order;
Atkins believes that religion and spirituality are voodoo and unworthy of discussion.
[Note that many believe that Randomness Theory itself is voodoo and hocus pocus at best.]

Birnbaum views hardline Fundamentalists in either camp (be it hard-line Creationists or hardline Atheists) as in conflict with real understanding of the universe. Ideologies, when mixed with metaphysics, tend to influence research and objectivity, and can move the conversation from out of the realm of rigorous intellectual pursuit, where it should remain.

After months of research Oliver Burkeman, erudite journalist for The Guardian, called Birnbaum’s theory “not unscientific” and cited iconolclast scientist and anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss (2006) who hailed Birnbaum’s theory as “remarkable and profound”; meanwhile, Guardian’s science writer Colin Tudge labeled noted chemist Peter Atkins (the standard bearer for Randomness/ atheism) as “non-scientific.”

In his book On Being (Oxford University Press, 2011) Atkins points out that there are questions which his model, the entrenched academic model, has not answered:

“The first great question of being is one that has probably entertained us all at one time or another: Where did it, the universe, all come from? How did it begin?” (p. 1)

“As a result of their intrinsic caution, almost every scientist is wisely unwilling to express a view about the events accompanying the inception of the universe. Quite honestly, they haven’t a clue….” (p. 5)

“The task before science in this connection will be to show how something can come from nothing without intervention. No one has the slightest idea whether that can happen and, if so, how it can come about….” (p. 11)

“I promised to return to the question of why there is a universe. What is its purpose? Something so big, complex, and all embracing some hold, must be there for a reason….” (p. 18)

Yet in spite of Atkins’s very own and published list of unanswered questions, when presented with an elegant and innovative proposal that incorporates scientific and philosophical answers to these same questions, he chose not to engage and debate the issues. Instead, he and others who support Randomness/atheism pivoted and attacked the Bard conference itself; Atkins himself had been a studious full-fledged participant and panelist at the conference 3 months earlier). Atkins’s Randomness/atheist compatriots then aggressively targeted the conference chairs for apparently being guilty of the cardinal sin of giving a major international platform – and traction/legitimacy to Birnbaum’s Summa Metaphysica.

Birnbaum’s paradigm challenge as personified in his Theory of Potential provides an intriguing resolution of the classic metaphysics questions hitherto assumed to be unanswerable – with an elegant, bold and straightforward solution. As University of Maine Associate Professor of Biology and Ecology, Andrei Alyokhin wrote in November, 2012 “Summa represents a bold attempt to formulate a unifying concept of the universe…it is reasonable to propose the Quest for Potential as a working hypothesis for explaining the impetus behind the cosmic dynamic”. Atkins continues to snub Potentialism and, to-date, refuses to debate this issue face-to-face with Birnbaum.

Why are the supporters of Randomness Theory so threatened by Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential? Because the Theory of Potential doesn’t just offer a new paradigm, but a far superior one – with an elegant and simple core theory capable of knocking Randomness Theory off of its perch?

Potentialism can satisfy the religious and the spiritualist and the secularist. Potentialism Theory resolves that classic list of seemingly unanswerable questions which Randomness simply cannot explain. By proclaiming everything meaningless, Randomness essentially admits intellectual defeat, declaring that those unanswered questions are simply beyond its ken.

It was once believed that the planets moved at random; but science and philosophy continue to advance and show that what offhand seems random, is actually orderly. Albert Einstein, in his book The World As I See It, stated that the harmony of natural law "reveals an intelligence of such superiority that, compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection."

Birnbaum's Summa Metaphysica challenges us to either (a) remain trapped in the past and quiescent in the face of the nihilistic wasteland of randomness, or (b) consider Birnbaum’s vibrant 21st Century theory – and reach out to a rich universe of direction and Infinite Potential. That is Summa’s paradigm challenge.

 

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“important and original… It proposes a new solution to the age-old problem of the existence of evil in the world. The approach Birnbaum takes can be applied not only to Judaism but to religious philosophy in general. I am particularly impressed by the author’s grappling with the most difficult issues facing contemporary religious thought in a lucid and perceptive manner.”

- Lawrence Schiffman, Professor of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, New York University, NY

CNN: Push-Pull

Seoptember 4, 2014

CNN: Push-Pull

 

 

Philosophy: The Push–Pull of the Cosmic Order


Designed by independent metaphysicist David Birnbaum, Potentialism is a cosmic theory steadily gaining traction in this new millennium. Unlike Randomness/Atheistic Theory of the 20th century, Potentialism states that the universe is advancing and ever-richer pursuant to its Quest for Infinite Potential. Q4P∞ (for short) states that everything in the universe has an inherent drive to grow in ever increasing Complexification – complexity/sophistication/variety/wondrousness.

As described in his three part treatise in Summa Metaphysica I, II and III (Ktav, 1988; New Paradigm Matrix, 2005; and New Paradigm Matrix, 2014), Birnbaum states that Q4P∞ directs the universe towards a state called Extraordinariation – an, as-yet, unrealized and perhaps unattainable state of perfect super complexity. Far beyond simple mechanical complexity, E+ (Extraordinariation) represents a metaphysical state of complexity in physical form as well as emotional and intellectual existence – in short, the perfect form of all that makes up the universe.

One byproduct of Q4P∞ is what Birnbaum calls the Push-Pull dynamic. This Push–Pull is dualistic in nature and an overarching dynamic in both the physical world as well as emotive expression. In physical terms – it can be equated with positive and negative; energy/mass and vacuum; or light and darkness. In metaphysical terms, it is the Yin and Yang or the male and female. Each has a distinct, but complementary state, and they are fundamentally intertwined and complementary to each other.

 

Push: Quest for Potential v. Pull: Extraordinariation

Push: Achievement v. Pull: Fulfillment

Push – Representing the neo-male, the Push is the active side of the duality. It is the creative drive of creation. Its first moments can be seen in the Big Bang itself, when matter and energy burst forth into the universe. Whether it be called the divine spark or simply a force of nature, it is what drives creation, innovation and complexity. The Push itself, and the entangled friction of the Pull were what brought forth the creation of our current universe. It is important to note that Push represents Quest for Potential, but without goal there is nowhere for it to go. That is where Pull comes into play.

Pull–Pull is the universal draw, the neo-female embodiment of attraction and allure. Pull is what gives the Push direction and meaning. Like physical lovers, Pull embodies what gives Push meaning. It is the inspiration to the prime-mover. If this sounds similar to physical lovers, it is no coincidence. Potentialism is made of infinite recursion. The broader dynamics of the universe play out on different levels, sizes and aspects of reality. It is natural that humans would follow the same dynamic of the larger cosmic order.

The Push–Pull Dynamic – The interplay or cosmic tango as Birnbaum more eloquently references it,

is what drives the universe to ever greater creation and complexification. Without this interplay, the world as we know it would not exist. In some sense, to help understand this dynamic, one can picture Push as loosely equivalent to Q4P∞. Conversely, Pull has strong elements of E+. This is understood because E+ is the draw, the end goal that Q4P∞ strives for actively.

Per Summa Metaphysica, Push provides the fuel and the spark, Pull provides the meaning and purpose and fulfillment. In an eternal intertwined dance, they allow the universe to unfold on its journey. It is this great cosmic interplay that gives structure and energy to the central drive of the universe – Q4P∞ → E+.

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“…a challenging new hypothesis…compelling…intellectually stimulating. It took me back again to my Roman Catholic seminary studies of Aquinas. I felt again the pull of great ideas, the struggles of Masters grappling with Mysteries…respectful of the past while carefully positing new positions… His solution deserves to be given serious consideration…”

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Code Cracking

August 20, 2014

focus: Potentialism Theory by David Birnbaum

Code Cracking

milkyway_header2

How to Crack the Cosmic Code

Summa Metaphysica's Potentialism Theory
   Team info

Where did the universe come from? What drives it onward? Where is it headed? Is there a protagonist to the cosmic drama? Why is there anything at all?

For shorthand, all of the above questions are referred to as the ‘cosmic code’; the academic name for the ‘cosmic code’ is ‘metaphysics.’

Stellar thinkers from time immemorial have tried – and failed – to crack the code. Many achieved temporary great fame; however, none ultimately proved successful in ‘cracking the code’; none of their theories stood the test of time. Until now. Contemporary thought leader David Birnbaum of Manhattan may well have succeeded (see ExaminerPurpose.com). No flaw has been discerned in his theory in the 25+ years since it was introduced and formally presented in 1988.

Was Birnbaum’s contemporary approach to ‘cracking the cosmic code’ distinctively different? The answer seems to be yes. Indeed Birnbaum has elucidated the components of his unique approach which yielded him his powerful ‘simultaneous solution’?

His proposed solution is conceptually totally different from prior ones; indeed, Binbaum introduces totally new and original terms as components of his theory; however, first we need to lay-out the broad parameters of Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential (see TheoryCore.com).

Birnbaum proposes that “there is, indeed, a protagonist to the cosmic order, but that the protagonist is a ‘quest’ and not a ‘classic entity’. The universe (intuitively) quests after its maximal potential. The core dynamic Quest for Potential∞ strives with purpose and direction towards ever-greater and higher potential. At the beginning of time, eternal Quest for Potential harnessed the eternal components of the eternal equations of Physics-Mathematics to ignite our universe via the Big Bang. This same symbiotic dynamic – Quest for Potential in league with Physics-Math – then acted as a catalyst for life, evolution, sexuality, language, emotion and ever-higher consciousness.”

The word ‘potential’ is, to begin with, distinctive in that it is both an adjective (example: Mr. Smith is a potential client) as well as a noun (example: Mr. Smith has potential). Birnbaum, however, identifies it as well as a quest – indeed as the overarching cosmic quest. According to the theory, Quest for Potential∞ drives the cosmic order (see David1000.com).

Of course, one should not expect to fully digest the theory in one gulp. However, you probably get-the-drift. (1) Potential is eternal (2) Potential is the guts of the cosmic order (3) The potential for a universe helped ignite the universe (4) The equations of Physics-Math were receptive to playing-out their potential (5) Eternal Quest for Potential∞ ignited and drives the universe forward (6) The goal of the cosmic order is to, as fully as possible, play-out its maximal
potential . Start-to-finish, one multi-faceted dynamic – permeating the cosmos – is at the core of the action. The ultimate common denominator. [See Sequence1000.com for a 16-section outline.]

On one level the theory is very simple: one term: Potential. On the next level, it is not so simple at all. On a still-grander level the theory is infinite, as it encompasses the entire universe – Past, Present, Future. As well, it is infinitely telescoping forward – Quest for Potential (within Potential (within Potential (within Potential ….ad infinitum.

Now, back to our main theme: Was Birnbaum’s approach to ‘cracking the cosmic code’ distinctively/qualitatively/conceptually so significantly different? The answer seems to definitely be yes.

Birnbaum grew up in a Modern Orthodox Jewish environment and attended Yeshiva of Forest Hills elementary school and then Yeshiva University High School before going onto college and graduate school. He was acutely aware of vulnerabilities of classic monotheism on two fronts: (a) Theogony – If there is a God, what is the origin of God? – and (b) Theodicy – If there is a God who is all-powerful, knowing and merciful, why is there gross evil (e.g. the Holocaust)?

He was also aware of the vulnerabilities – then and now – of secular science vis à vis astrophysics, in particular: What ignited the Big Bang? What drives the universe forward? Why is there reality at all? Where is the universe heading? And he was aware of the vulnerabilities of science vis à vis. Darwinism: Why does the universe seem to be much more than just ‘survival of the fittest’? Finally, Birnbaum was struck by the fact that so many very smart people had tackled all these questions, but all had come up empty-handed.

At this point, Birnbaum’s unique approach comes-to-the-fore. Ten-year-old Birnbaum had relegated this entire subject to the realm of a part-time hobby; he had no interest in academe; he did not want to devote more than a few minutes a week to the issue; he wanted to ‘crack the code’ by the time he was thirty (twenty years out); he felt that the ‘solution’ was probably ‘hiding in plain sight’; he felt that the route to a solution would be in exposing his mind to as wide a gamut of possible of information/stimulation as possible.

Birnbaum felt that taking a conventional approach was ‘doomed to failure’; a ‘creative pivot’ would be necessary; creative, but not wild; creative, but elegant; elegant, but infinitely powerful; Birnbaum felt that the ‘solution’ involved turbo-charging a seemingly mundane concept; furthermore, he suspected that the ‘solution’ to any one of the hitherto intractable metaphysical issues, if correct, would optimally also be the ‘simultaneous solution’ to all the key issues (see PotentialismTheory.com/ParadigmChallenge/).

Birnbaum’s just-noted “How To” checklist route to a solution would prove to be eerily on-the-mark. His original and creative solution pivots on a seemingly mundane concept, Potential; then Birnbaum turbo-charges it with infinite dynamism; he ends-up with a breathtaking ‘simultaneous solution’ (see SimultaneousSolution.com) apparently cracking the elusive cosmic code. There is no serious competing metaphysics on the global chessboard.

As regards Modern Orthodox Judaism, Birnbaum’s intuition was that his metaphysics ‘solution’ if/when it manifested might just ‘lance’ the key problems in religious philosophy – Theogony and Theodicy noted above. Indeed, that has proven to be the case. His Summa Metaphysica I: Religious Man: God & Evil (Ktav, 1988) is acknowledged as a timeless classic on the two inter-related themes.

Meanwhile, by age 22 he was off to Harvard Business School in Boston. But, because of kashruth he lived off-campus in his own apartment in Cambridge near Harvard College, and near Harvard Hillel. The Harvard Jewish student organization hosted speakers of all-stripes (and religions) to its well-known and heavily-attended Friday night (Shabbos) forums including cosmologists, theologians, philosophers in-the-mix. The members of the audience from the surrounding college community ‘were no slouches either.’ Birnbaum ‘religiously’ attended the forums and as he says now ‘listened very, very carefully.’ He had no need to ask any questions; the vibrant audience took care of that; he enjoyed many of the presentations and the give-and-take – but didn’t get what he calls ‘red steak’; only ‘side dishes.’ By the time he set forth back to NY in June 1974, he had concluded that neither ‘the best and the brightest’ nor anyone else had a clue as regards the 6-12 key inter-related questions of cosmic existence. Cambridge had proved no different than Forest Hills. ‘No one had a clue.’ He was 24.

Courtesy of Harvard Hillel, Birnbaum now had 100% confidence that there was a major intellectual vacuum waiting to be filled; at that point there were only 6 years left to his ‘crack the cosmic code by his ‘age 30 timeline target’ ticking time clock. He would marry in 1978 at age 28; his 30th birthday came-and-went but no ‘cosmic code.’

In January 1982 David Birnbaum was walking along the windy beach in Barbados trying to solve his little Metaphysics Rubik’s Cube puzzle in his brain, when the ‘eureka moment’ hit – ‘Potential’ possibly solved all the issues simultaneously. He and his wife went back to NY three days later. Birnbaum got down to work; no google yet, so he visited the major libraries; no longer devoting several minutes per week; now devoting a dozen hours per week.

In November 1988 Ktav Publishing released his first work (noted above) - God & Evil - which lays-out the guts of Potentialism. It received powerful academic and theological praise. The work would subsequently be renamed Summa Metaphysica I: Religious Man: God and Evil. Over a dozen colleges globally assigned the work as a Course Text. Summa Metaphysica II: Spiritual Man: God and Good would come out in 2005. Bard College (Upstate NY) would host a major 3 ½ day international academic conference on Science and Religion and focused on Birnbaum’s work in April 2012. Then Summa Metaphysica III: Secular Man: The Transcendent Dynamic would come out in January 2014. Over two dozen journals would focus on Summa – via 50+ feature articles - in 2013-2014 alone (see SummaCoverage.com).

The original theory remained unchanged – and effectively unchallenged. Over a three volume series (see SummaMetaphysica.com), Birnbaum displays his powerful theory through the respective lenses of three typologies of mankind: Religious, Spiritual and Secular. See www.PotentialismTheory.com .

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle failed. Birnbaum may have succeeded. The contemporary author is quick to point out the mantra that ‘we all stand on the shoulders’ of thinkers before us who have paved-the-way. But Birnbaum did not just ‘stand on their shoulders’; he very carefully calibrated a revolutionary creative solution as discussed above. The ‘focus’ and guidelines he set for the project allowed-him to come up with his theory within 22 years. Now, 22 years is seemingly a long time, but metaphysics has been around in one form or another for the 7,000 years of civilization. Lucky that Birnbaum happens-to-be a focused and creative sort-of-guy; lucky that he was living in striking distance to those little Friday night forums in Cambridge; lucky that he started young. See www.SummaMetaphysica.com

   
focus: David Birnbaum's Potentialism Theory

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“…author and scholar David Birnbaum does what has eluded the greatest minds and thinkers…looks at the evidence from a genuinely fresh and original perspective…his brilliant thesis is built upon solid foundations of impeccable scholarship.”

- Rabbi A. Mark Levin, Anshe Sphard Congregation, Christian Brothers College, Memphis TN

Complexification 1000

www.Complexification1000.com

January 5, 2015

Complexification 1000

 

January 5, 2015

Complexification (C+):

Cornerstone of Summa Metaphysica’s Potentialism Theory

 

To physicist Einstein (author, Theory of Relativity) everything is Relative; to cosmologist Birnbaum, (author, Summa Metaphysica/Potentialism Theory) Relativity is nice for macro-physics, but to get one’s arms around the entire cosmic order (super-macro-physics), one needs to work with a more overarching concept – Potential. See PotentialismTheory.com.
Birnbaum likes Potential because he can play with the term and resolve virtually all the key questions in metaphysics and its related field of cosmology – with one quite-concise theme and formula.

# What dynamic is eternal? Infinite Quest for Potential [see Eternal1000.com]

# What dynamic drives the Cosmic Order? Quest for Potential [see www.summametaphysica.com/the-q4p/]

# What is the purpose of Man? To reach his Potential [see ExaminerPurpose.com]

# What is the end-goal of the cosmos? Infinite Potential realization [see www.summametaphysica.com/extraordinariation/]
So, with minimal pivoting, Potential emerges as the ultimate ‘plug’ in metaphysics/cosmology.

And just where did this little dynamic come from? Birnbaum frontally addresses the issue:

# By Definition, Potential/Possibility is eternal.

# It is Self-evident that Potential/Possibility is eternal; there is, indeed a universe; thus, there must have been the Potential for it to exist.

 

Birnbaum believes that his little By Definition/Self-evident ‘1-2 punch’ seals-the-deal that Potential/Possibility is eternal; he may just be right; and it’s nice to solve a 7,000 year-old conundrum with a conceptual finesse.

Potentialism was discerned by metaphysicist and cosmologist David Birnbaum of Manhattan. Harvard and yeshiva-educated Birnbaum is an intellectual maverick; but he is a demanding and highly-disciplined intellectual warrior. In the 25+ years since the introduction of his Potentialism Theory (aka Quest for Potential Theory aka Q4P-Theory) in Summa Metaphysica I by Ktav Publishing (NJ), no flaw has been discerned in the elegant theory.

Per Birnbaum, Infinite Quest for Potential drives the universe forward towards the super-extraordinary via its intermediate dynamic – Complexification. Notated C+, Complexification is a cornerstone of Potentialism theory. See Glossary1000.com.

The theory itself is laid-out in Birnbaum’s three-part series:

Summa Metaphysica I: Religious Man: God and Evil (Ktav, 1988);

Summa Metaphysica II: Spiritual Man: God and Good (New Paradigm Matrix, 2005);

Summa Metaphysica III: Secular Man: The Transcendent Dynamic (New Paradigm Matrix, 2014).

See SummaMetaphysica.com.

In the series, Birnbaum explains that the universe is ruled by a central equation, Q4P → E+. The formula dictates that the Infinite Quest for Potential drives the universe towards an ultimate goal – of the super-extraordinary, or, in Birnbaum’s lexicon, Extraordinariation (E+).

This E+ is the ultimate state of super-complexity on both a mechanical and metaphysical level – thus the greatest hypothetical level of super-complexity in all forms. E+ is actually a goal/horizon to be sought-after, but never quite realized. See https://www.summametaphysica.com/cosmic-journey/.

Driving the universe towards this E+ on a day-to-day basis is the cosmic workhorse, Potential's handmaiden, Birnbaum’s hypothesized C+, or Complexification. This intermediate dynamic (in between Quest for Potential and E+) is what advances and shapes and iterates the universe in ever-greater degrees of super-complexity.

To understand C+, it is necessary to distinguish it from mere complexity-advance. We must differentiate between the two terms inasmuch as while Summa Metaphysica I (1988) touched-upon Complexification (C+), contemporary (2014) cutting-edge physics (Seth Lloyd of MIT for example) now deploys complexity-advance as centerpiece in a mechanistic cosmological model. See Intermediate1000.com.

The simple issue is that complexity-advance does not get us to Extraordinariation (E+); however, Complexification (C+) does. See PotentialismTheory.com/ParadigmChallenge/.

Complexity-advance represents only incremental/linear advance in layers of complexity; C+ incorporates neo-quantum advances – via increased complexity, sophistication, richness, integration, diversity and wondrousness. Thus, plain vanilla complexity-advance is but one of multiple components of Complexification.

In any event, we now need to insert Complexification (C+) into the formula – and the theory’s SuperLaw equation emerges:

Q4P > C+ > E+

It is sometimes easiest to juxtapose complexity-advance v. Complexification side by side to more clearly see understand the differences.

Complexity-advance v. Complexification (C+)


  • linear v. qualitative advance
  • incremental v. neo-quantum advance
  • plain vanilla advance v. profound advance
  • active within relatively narrow parameters v. active within expandable parameters
  • narrow-spectrum v. wide-spectrum differentiation
  • mechanistic v. organic
  • physical v. metaphysical process
  • iterative v. iterative/evolving/morphing/quantum-step-up/dynamic process
  • closed v. open system
  • neo-Darwinian v. Birnbaumian
  • complexity-advance alone v. a package of advances (including complexity-advance)

Teleology (purpose/direction)

Unlike plain-vanilla complexity-advance, C+ is consonant with our teleological model. The Cosmic Order, and, in parallel, life on Earth, advances through intermittent neo-quantum jumps towards the ever more extraordinary. These are not simply direction-oriented linear/incremental advances; these are profound advances in the cosmic march towards E+.

The emergence of life, language, consciousness, and emotion, for example, simply cannot be labeled as purely linear advance. However, through C+, not only is the emergence of multi-cellular life from single-cell life better understood, but also aesthetics, love, music, art and morality.

Put another way, C+ in the equation explains the advance of Evolution; Complexity-advance alone does not.

Quantum Changes

C+ also helps describes advance in quantum terms. Complexity-advance is a well enough tool to describe day-to-day shifts. Complexity-advance gets us, if you will, incremental, linear change. But the truly quantum changes, those redefining moments in the nature of the universe, require C+ and a more profound shift in the nature of existence. When speaking of complexity, you may be able to isolate the differences between a hydrogen atom and a helium atom, but how does complexity describe the fundamental change that gave rise to the first molecule? This is where complexity-advance begins to be wholly inadequate. Not only that, but complexity-advance alone utterly fails when trying to describe any form of non-physical complexity.

More to the point, complexity-advance can only take us only so far in explaining natural selection and evolution. ‘Plain vanilla' complexity-advance falls apart when trying to explain universe ‘luxuries’ such as music, art, humor, romance, altruism, spirituality et al. These ‘luxury’ aspects of the universe hardly seem to be 'survival traits'. Undeniably, these are all qualities we associate with the highest life forms we know of. So, it seems that the term complexity-advance has limitations and is simply incapable of capturing all that that is actually occurring.

the Common Denominator

Birnbaum re-iterates that a cosmological theory must be universal – and true on all levels, from the macro to micro and everything in between. Moreover, a cosmological theory must be as true for physical forms and matter as it is for concepts and ideals. Thus the evolution of thought, emotion and spirituality must advance just as the physical universe does. And it has. Just as the universe has grown from particles to atoms to molecules and stars (as a result of C+), so has consciousness grown from instinct to reason to art to morality and altruism (again as a direct result of C+). Complexification (C+) yields-us the Common Denominator of 14 billion years of cosmic history/evolvement. Complexity-advance does not. See SummaCoverage.com.

Getting to Beethoven

To encapsule the issue, Complexification gets us from a single-cell organism 4 billion years ago to Beethoven completing his 9th Symphony in 1624; Complexity-advance simply does not; the leaner dynamic simply does not have the ‘firepower’ – multi-dimensional breadth and depth – to catalyze the endless extraordinary morphings necessary to get us from a single-cell organism to Mr. Ludwig van Beethoven. See https://www.summametaphysica.com/beethoven/.

Not as a stand-alone metaphysics

Complexification (C+) is a powerful dynamic; however, one should not be overly tempted in setting it up as a stand-alone metaphysics; it works as an intermediate dynamic, but fails as a stand-alone metaphysics. Why?

C+ has the ‘tail-wind’ of Quest for Potential breathing cosmic energy/chi into it from eternal origins, and is beckoned-forth by Extraordinariation ( E+) at infinite horizon forward; C+ (conceptually and reality-wise) only ‘works’ when bracketed by these two infinite, Potential-suffused metaphysical bookends. See also TheoryCore.com.

In any event, more precisely, there is no clear divide between Q4P and C+; the two are interconnected

in any event.

Nuts & Bolts courtesy of MIT

Recent hi-level scientific/academic works offering the nuts & bolts for the mechanism of Complexification (first introduced by Birnbaum in 1988 via Summa Metaphysica I, Ktav) include the following: See also xMIT1000.com.

Programming the Universe (Knopf, 2006) by Professor of Quantum Mechanics Seth Lloyd of MIT (noted above, as Lloyd deploys ‘complexity-advance’ as centerpiece);

Our Mathematical Universe (Knopf, 2014) by Professor of Physics & Mathematics Max Tegmark of MIT.

Birnbaum had stood alone since Summa Metaphysica I in 1988 as a voice elucidating a matrix-like teleological universe; for almost two decades he had single-handedly faced-off across-the-board hostility from the apex predators in scientific academe; he was more than pleased to have ‘the U.S. Cavalry’ – in the form of Lloyd and Tegmark of MIT – ‘charge to his rescue’ in the 2006-2014 zone with their dovetailing metaphysics books; the two ‘MIT books’ complement each other – and each work offers a proposed scientific schema for a matrix-like teleological universe. Nice to have world class physicists Lloyd and Tegmark providing ‘covering fire.’

Vindication via MIT is nice.

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

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- Rabbi Marvin Tokayer, Senior Rabbi, Jewish Community of Japan

Core DNA

November 20, 2014

Core DNA

 

The Core DNA of the Cosmic Order

& Summa Meytaphysica’s Quest for Potential? Theory

Metaphysicist David Birnbaum (see BirnbaumBio.com) of Manhattan sought after the cosmic genesis point. To that end he crafted the now-iconic 3-part Summa Metaphysica philosophy treatise (1988, 2005, 2014). [See series detail below.]

Birnbaum discerns one dynamic as the Common Denominator of the entire Cosmic Order (see TTOE1000.com. This (eternal) dynamic is (his hypothesized) Infinite Quest for Potential?.

Per the theory, the dynamic ignited the Cosmic Order, drives it forward, energized and sustains Life; and gives the Cosmic Order ‘direction’ (i.e. towards realization of ultimate Potentiality). The theory is breathtaking in many aspects, but particularly in its inherent ‘simplicity’ and ‘sweep’. See PotentialismTheory.com.
– which brings us to the first of our many multi-faceted questions here:

 Cosmic DNA?

Is there a cosmic DNA – and is this DNA more precisely, Infinite Quest for Potential??

At the core of Summa Metaphysica theory is the concept of Potentialism. Potentialism Theory (aka Quest for Potential? Theory aka Q4P-Theory) protagonists frequently refer to the core principle equation: Q4P? => E+. This is an expression meaning that the Infinite Quest for Potential? (Summa’s hypothesized core cosmic instigator) drives the universe towards Extraordinariation (Summa’s hypothesized cosmic end-goal). This overarching and underlying Infinite Quest for Potential? is, of course, fundamental to Summa theory; it is the inescapable and inexorable force that drives the great Cosmic Order towards the extraordinary and ever-more wondrous. [Note: Q4P? – or plain Q4P – is shorthand for Infinite Quest for Potential?… see  www.summametaphysica.com/the-q4p/]

Is our own physical DNA an extension of cosmic metaphysical DNA?

Conceptually, yes. To Birnbaum, Quest for Potential is, indeed, the core ‘Cosmic DNA.’ Indeed, our own physical DNA may be an extension of cosmic metaphysical DNA. How might this be?

On a cosmic scale, the embedded Cosmic DNA is responsible for life and existence itself. The eternal fire that sparked the Big Bang itself, the Cosmic DNA is what determined not only the nature of the universe but determined that it must be at all; it is the initial spark that brought forth all of creation.

Did the emergence of primordial ‘life’ (finally) provide a ‘platform’ for metaphysical DNA to make-the-leap to physical DNA?

Is there thus a direct line/path from eternal origins infinitely-past to our own individual physical DNA in the 21st century?

Does our own DNA have integrated with it, metaphysical DNA, as well?

Are we thus individually each more ‘cosmic’ and, indeed, ‘eternal’ than most of us suspected?

Is Natural Selection primarily Cosmic metaphysical DNA manipulating the physical DNA of the genome of organisms – to advance – in integrated fashion (aka ‘co-evolvement) the imperatives of  Quest for Potential??

Is our entire cosmos co-evolving, as Cosmic metaphysical DNA manipulates the physical DNA
cosmos-wide to advance the imperatives of Quest for Potential??

[Technical note: All references to DNA in this article refer to RNA, as well; as is known, RNA is the other genetic material in an organism.]

Is Q4P Divine/divine?

Birnbaum’s position is that Q4P? can be viewed as either (a) a religious dynamic, (b) a spiritual dynamic or (c) a purely secular dynamic. See precise titles of three Summa treatise volumes below. The founder of Potentialism Theory (aka Quest for Potential? Theory aka Q4P-Theory) devotes one of each of the three Summa treatise volumes to one of these ‘lenses.’ See PotentialismTheory.com/ParadigmChallenge/.

Birnbaum does intermittently refer to Q4P? as divine. Whether you take that in a literal, religious sense is a matter of perspective. What is meant is that Q4P is a metaphysical life-generating, life-sustaining, and, indeed, purpose-of-life driving force; Q4P is  inherent-in, and permeating-all, creation; Is that not the core component of ‘divinity’ – whether or not there is a ‘legislating entity’? See MetaphysicalAnchoring.com.

If  (repeat: if) there is no classic Divine (with an upper case ‘D’), there is, per Summa hypothesis, most assuredly at-the-minimum, a cosmic thrust of  divinity (lower case ‘d’) to life-instigating, generating and sustaining Infinite Quest for Potential. Birnbaum is trying to explicate that while we are used to bifurcating gestalts  as  Holy v. Secular, there may be an intermediate play; meaning, a dynamic which is not quite classic Divine, but not quite classic Secular either:  Q4P.  See https://www.summametaphysica.com/digital-journal/.

Q4P and the Laws of Physics

Birnbaum would say that Q4P is linked at-the-hip to the Laws of Physics; the two advance in-tandem from eternity-past through cosmic history. See TheoryCore.com.

Per Summa website

“The core theme of David Birnbaum’s works is that one elegant dynamic and one elegant dynamic, alone (Quest for Potential?) both instigates and drives the entire cosmic order. According to the conceptual theorist “Potentialism proposes that there is, indeed, a protagonist to the cosmic order, but that the protagonist is a ‘quest,’ and not a ‘classic entity.’ The universe quests for its maximal potential. The core dynamic Quest for Potential? strives with purpose and direction towards ever-greater and higher potential. At the ‘beginning of time,’ eternal Quest for Potential? harnessed the eternal portion of the eternal equations of Physics-Mathematics to ignite our universe via the Big Bang.
This same symbiotic dynamic – Quest for Potential? in league with Physics-Math – then acted as a catalyst for the route tracking-forwards to high level humans in the 21st Century – tracking forward from the Big Bang thru the emergence of the Elements, primordial star systems, myriad galaxies, supernovas, the sun, our solar system, life, photosynthesis, DNA, organisms, sexual reproduction, multi-cellular life, the Cambrian Explosion, amphibians, forests, reptiles, mammals, dinosaurs, birds, flowers, evolution, hominids, homo sapiens, and ever-increasing consciousness/emotion – and, indeed, for all the key dynamics which have evolved in the universe.”

 

The Cosmic Genome

The Cosmic DNA impacts the entirety of existence; it is embedded even in human DNA

Cosmic DNA is a term used by Potentialism Theory to express the very inherent nature of Potential. Nothing in the universe exists outside of its influence. It is like a cosmic genome that tells everything in the universe its purpose – and how it should broadly behave – and strive. See also DNA1000.com.

Metaphysical Fire

Cosmologist/Metaphysicist David Birnbaum writes in his seminal work Summa Metaphysica I (1988) that at eternal origins a metaphysical fire leapt forth from out-of-time into time itself… Many billions of years later, we are a direct result of that metaphysical leap. Let us try to elaborate on Birnbaum’s proposition.

Asked to describe the Cosmic DNA, Birnbaum has offered:

“Infinite Potential abhors nothingness; it seeks fullest expression and deepest fulfillment….ultimate Potentiality.

Infinite Quest for Potential in an infinite iteration feeds-upon-itself…like a raging forest fire.

Once it had ignited ‘nothingness’ by unzipping-it into positives and negatives, Infinite Quest for Potential rages-on…ever expanding the universe and pressing it ever-onwards to its fullest possibilities.

Q4P challenges the Cosmic Order to inexorably and implacably seek-after Extraordinariation.”

Nothing sums up the Cosmic DNA so succinctly as these few stanzas. In a Potentialist world – where thought, form, art, emotion, morality and physical reality all share mutual and equally important places in the whole of the universe – a truth in stanzas is apropos – a nod to the poetry that is our cosmos. And poetry might be an accurate description of the Cosmic DNA. Unlike the pure physicality of a human DNA strand, the Cosmic DNA represents the fire of inspiration as well as the physical matter and energy of the universe.  See xQuantum1000.com.

Complexification (C+)

definition, from Glossary1000.com

C+ Complexification: The hypothesized cosmic intermediate drive – “Q4P’s handmaiden” – maneuvering the cosmos towards greater complexity/sophistication/richness/integration/variety/wondrousness.

In turn, note that one of the components of Complexification just-noted above is ‘integration’; meaning, Complexification does not occur divorced from the cosmic landscape; rather,  Complexification integrates into-the-process the harmonization/optimization of the ongoing Complexification with the existing bio-landscape.”

Moreover, the Cosmic DNA is embedded in the DNA of the ‘intermediate’ cosmic dynamic Complexification. C+, Complexification is the handmaiden of Infinite Quest for Potential. C+ seeks-after ever increased complexity/sophistication/richness/integration/variety/wondrousness. It is the internal ‘driver’ of Evolution. (Yes, survival is in the mix, as well; survival falls into the category of – necessary, but not sufficient.)

Complexification (C+): Whereas complexity-advance represents the purely physical levels of the complex, Complexification is a broader, overarching concept covering both incremental and quantum-advance in both physical complexity as well as less tangible, but recognized non-physical forms of complexity such as art, morality, beauty, spirituality… This Complexification is driven by the Cosmic DNA, the integral need of the universe to ever-more-fully express itself.

A vibrant and life-affirming Cosmic Order

For adherents of Potentialism, the Cosmic DNA represents the core of universal expression. What some might see as a lifeless, pointless universe, Potentialists see as an organic universe alive with potential and possibility – and only growing greater by the second. The Cosmic DNA of Infinite Quest for Potential is just that – the universal charter that assures the continued inexorable advance and dynamism of the cosmos.

Unifying Science, Spirituality & Philosophy

Infinite Quest for Potential? is thus the metaphysical thread which, as well, unites the entire Cosmic Order. Thus, in-the-mix, Potentialism Theory unifies Science, Spirituality & Philosophy. See Unifying1000.com.

The Summa Metaphysica series:

Summa Metaphysica I: Religious Man: God and Evil (Ktav, 1988);

Summa Metaphysica II: Spiritual Man: God and Good (New Paradigm Matrix, 2005);

Summa Metaphysica III: Secular Man: The Transcendent Dynamic (New Paradigm Matrix, 2014).

See SummaMetaphysica.com.

Dovetailing with Potentialism Theory:

Recent hi-level academic physics/math works by two ‘big guns’ from MIT, the #1 rated science/math university in the world dovetailing with Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential  (1988) include the following:

Programming the Universe (Knopf, 2006) by Professor of Quantum Mechanics Seth Lloyd of MIT;
Our Mathematical Universe (Knopf, 2014) by Professor of Physics Max Tegmark of MIT.

Potentialism Theory: Context

Summa Metaphysica has been a Course Text at over a dozen institutions of higher learning globally; it was the focus of a 3 1/2 day international academic conference at Bard College (Upstate, NY) April 2012  (see Conference1000.com). In turn, the conference set off a global firestorm. At SummaCoverage.com see links (or extracts) for 150+ feature articles/reviews/testimonials of Quest for Potential? theory. Note that there are over 80 focused pieces on Potentialism Theory in the last 18 months alone.
No conceptual flaw has been discerned in the Birnbaum construct (see 7Criteria.com); indeed, it is self-contained in its By Definition/Self-evident logic. See  Eternal1000.com. As noted, Birnbaum’s 1988, 2005, 2014  work is anchored scientifically by the 2006, 2014 dovetailing works of MIT physicists Lloyd and Tegmark respectively.  See xMIT100.com.
Well over 50,000 volumes of the various Summa books are in circulation; the complete 3-volume work is available gratis on the book’s SummaMetaphysica.com site in flip-book form. Birnbaum himself is either the author or the editor-in-chief of several important and noteworthy series (see www.major1000.com). His New Paradigm Matrix publishing platform (see NPM1000.com) has over 180 thought leaders globally under its aegis.

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“a truly stimulating and creative contribution to the post-Shoah discussion…overall direction is one that I find extremely promising… I believe it is the only sensible way to proceed… What is especially appealing about this volume is its ability to draw together new insights and the wisdom of the tradition in a creative synthesis.”

- John T. Pawlikowski, Professor of Social Ethics, M.A. Director, Catholic Theological Union, Member, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Commission, Chicago, IL

Cosmic Journey

November 13, 2013

Cosmic Journey

See also David Birnbaum Philosophy:  Quest for Potential (Q4P), Theory of Everything metaphysics Unifying Science & Religion.

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum’s philosophy treatise:

 

“…researched extensively, presented in a scholarly manner and creative in thesis…a theodicy/theology/philosophy which maintains its internal consistency and which provides a framework within which to find the answers…courageously ventures into new territory…must be admired for its originality, its logical consistency and its courage”

– Rabbi Dale Polakoff, Great Neck Synagogue, NY

Cosmic Origins / Aust. Times

June 12, 2014

Cosmic Origins / Aust. Times

Cosmic Origins & Summa Metaphysica

12 Jun, 2014
by Shanaka in UNCATEGORIZED

 

Science, by definition, derives theory from observation and experimentation. That is what makes it ‘science.’ Metaphysics, to a great extent is a long lost art, embraces science but proactively endeavors to so-to-speak wrap-around it with all embracing conceptual theory.


Looked at another way, science likes proof; metaphysics likes grand conceptual elegance; metaphysics views the realm of what can be ‘proved’ by science to be limited; but metaphysics tries to understand the infinite; therefore, metaphysics is not bound simply by what can be proved (today); rather, metaphysics wants a grander, elegant conceptual schema of things.

Metaphysics so to speak wraps-around science; while metaphysics is not science, it cannot be unscientific. A metaphysics which captures the most data, and lances the greatest number of philosophical conundrums, with the most succinct and elegant concept, will tend to prevail. Insiders use the term ‘aesthetic elegance’ to denote the sine qua non of a great metaphysics.

Scientists have tackled the origins of the universe by ‘looking-backwards,’ that is by ‘working their way back’ in time from the present: Before Z came Y and before Y came X as far back as they can. By ‘working their way back’ as far as they can, they try to discern cosmic origins. Science indeed believes that it has ‘tracked-back’ to the first milliseconds of the Big Bang fifteen billion years ago and is focused on the nature of that ‘event.’

Naturally some brave soul scientists attempt to discern the ‘cause’ or trigger of the Big Bang. Nobel Prizes await them if they succeed. Many blackboards of chalk-written equations are filled-up with their conjectures. An increasingly major effort in contemporary times has been in discerning the sequence of the first milliseconds of the Big Bang.

But what is the primordial catalyst of the cosmic order? Why is there anything at all? What is the purpose of all? Is there indeed, direction or purpose to it all? These classic questions are the turf of metaphysics, a field which has almost ‘disappeared from the radar’ since the grand philosophical treatises of Spinoza (d. 1687 in The Hague, Dutch Republic.) As we know, well-preceding Spinoza, metaphysics was the classic field of those famous Greeks. However, the iconic Greeks, including Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, also ultimately failed; they did not come up with a known schema which has proven convincing-enough to stand the test of time. Ditto for the great Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Eastern philosophers. Ditto for the great secular philosophers. All have ultimately been stymied — since the dawn of man 7,000 years ago.

With the unfolding of the European Renaissance (14th — 17th century) it was felt that ‘science’ would solve these problems; however, to date science has not. As regards our focus in this essay, in contemporary time, understanding key scientific questions simply by ‘tracking-back in time’ has proved to be problematic and fundamentally impossible to do in its totality. It is true that with powerful telescopes aided by cutting-edge contemporary analysis theoretical physics, scientists can now look back very close to the time of the Big Bang, ferreting out many cosmic secrets. But that is ‘only’ 13.8 billion years ago. And we really wish to look back infinite billion years-ago to way prior to the Big Bang…to the very eternality of the cosmic order.

There are additional scientific shortcomings to exclusively ‘tracking-backwards’ in approaching questions of cosmic origins. As you go back far enough, the very things scientist measure begin to lose meaning. When approaching The Beginning there are unavoidable issues. The very word “Beginning” loses meaning. In The Beginning, time itself (probably) did not exist. Indeed, matter as we know it (probably) did not either.

David Birnbaum (see examinerpurpose.com) of NY looked at this entire conundrum at various levels of sophistication as a ten year old, a twenty-year old and as a thirty year old. He diligently kept up with the classic and contemporary literature and texts. He focused on three inter-related fields: religion, metaphysics and astrophysics. Birnbaum was acutely aware that all three fields had parallel shortcomings vis à vis explaining cosmic origins. He conceptualized a solution in 1982 and his now heavily featured theory was formally proposed by him in 1988 in the first volume of his treatise (see David1000.com).

Summa Metaphysica, Birnbaum’s iconic treatise, has been used as a course text, in whole or in-part, at over a dozen institutions of higher learning from UCLA on the west Coast to Brandeis on the East Coast to Hebrew University in Israel. Bard College (Upstate, NY) crafted a now famous 4-day international academic conference centered on the work in April 2012. Over 30 feature articles have focused on Birnbaum’s Theory of Potential in the last 12 months alone.

No flaw has been discerned in Birnbaum’s Potentialism in the 25+ years since it was introduced in late 1988. The work elegantly and adroitly finesses the key philosophical conundrums. By all accounts, the work unifies Science, Philosophy and Spirituality, the elusive goal of academia for many millennia. En toto, the work is a quite-formidable paradigm challenge.

As noted, contemporary Physics has to date worked-back 13.8 billion years ago to within milliseconds of the Big Bang point itself. The job of the metaphysician is to propose an aesthetically elegant theory which incorporates all known data — and which conceptually ‘solves’ as many philosophical and cosmological questions as possible. Ideally, the origins of the Big Bang would be enveloped in this conceptual net as well. Thus, in juxtaposition to science – which works backwards – the metaophysician will metaphorically stake a metaphysical concept into the ground, and then see if it works ‘rolling-forwards’ — from Eternal origins thru the Big Bang to the present.

Birnbaum proposes an original concept as the missing key to understanding the cosmic drama (see potentialismtheory.com). He proposes his signature concept that Potential is the eternal cosmic dynamic. More precisely, Birnbaum proposes that Quest for Potential (infinitely iterating) is the eternal cosmic dynamic. This dynamic works its way forward over the billions of eons towards first igniting our universe and eventually — down the road – catalyzing the emergence of higher-level consciousness human beings within it.

Thus the core theme of David Birnbaum’s works is that one elegant dynamic and one elegant dynamic, alone (Quest for Potential) both instigates and drives the entire cosmic order. According to the author “Potentialism proposes that there is, indeed, a protagonist to the cosmic order, but that the protagonist is a ‘quest,’ and not a ‘classic entity.’ The universe quests for its maximal potential. The core dynamic Quest for Potential∞ strives with purpose and direction towards ever-greater and higher potential. At the ‘beginning of time,’ eternal Quest for Potential harnessed the eternal equations of Physics-Mathematics to ignite our universe via the Big Bang (see PotentialismTheory.com/ParadigmChallenge/).

This same symbiotic dynamic — Quest for Potential in league with Physics-Math — then acted as a catalyst for the route tracking-forwards to high level humans in the 21st Century — tracking forward from the Big Bang thru the emergence of the Elements, primordial star systems, myriad galaxies, supernovas, the sun, our solar system, life, photosynthesis, DNA, organisms, sexual reproduction, multi-cellular life, the Cambrian Explosion, amphibians, forests, reptiles, mammals, dinosaurs, birds, flowers, evolution, hominids, homo sapiens, and ever-increasing consciousness/emotion — and, indeed, for all the key dynamics which have evolved in the universe.”

Birnbaum develops his proposal over his 3-book treatise (see summametaphysica.com), but the guts of the theory is simple enough: Potential drives the cosmic order.

His metaphysics is flexible enough to embrace Religious Man, Spiritual Man and Secular Man.
To Religious Man, Infinite Divine Potential is the core of classic God (of Potential); to Spiritual Man, infinite divine potential is the overarching spirit and drive of the cosmic order; to Secular Man, Quest for Potential is the transcendent cosmic dynamic. Birnbaum develops the Religious Man schema in Summa Metaphysica I: God and Evil (Ktav Publishing, 1988); he develops Spiritual Man in Summa Metaphysica II: God and Good (New Paradigm Matrix, 2005); and he develops Secular Man in Summa Metaphysica III: Transcendent Dynamic (New Paradigm Matrix, 2014).

To Birnbaum, Infinite Potential is the ‘prime mover,’ the catalyst and sustainer for life. Infinite Potential defines and drives the universe. It lies at the nexus of where science, philosophy and spirituality co-exist.

On one level, Birnbaum’s theory can be expressed in one word, Potential. But, to get his arms around an infinite universe, Birnbaum has written the 3-volume treatise noted above and published it over a 26-year span.

Other works

Not exclusively a writer on Potential theory, Birnbaum also has an impressive list of other works he has published. He has authored a 7-volume chronology titled Jews, Church and Civilization. The unique work traces the 4,000 year journey of the Jews within the context of the ebbs and flows of important civilizations.

He is also editor-in-chief of in-progress 10-volume, ten theme Mesorah Matrix series (see mesorahmatrix.com) on Jewish Spirituality, which has signed-up over 180 leading Jewish thought leaders globally as contributors. Obviously here ‘universalist’ Birnbaum puts on a ‘different hat’ as editor of a series on spirituality, but does so upfront and clearly defined. Furthermore, he is not one of the actual essayists. The ten volumes are scheduled to be released two at a time between 2014 and 2019.

 

DAVID BIRNBAUM PHILOSOPHY / METAPHYSICS

 

Cosmology, Metaphysics & Philosophy: See sample testimonial on Summa Metaphysica, David Birnbaum's philosophy treatise:

 

“Birnbaum addresses the subject with an originality of approach which is wholly his own, and is bound to stir the minds of his readers. Although the works is essentially that of a Jew conducting his enquiry from the standpoint of Jewish religious thought, students of other faiths, lay and clerical, too will find the volume sustaining long-asked questions and challenging long-held beliefs.”

- Isaac L. Swift, Rabbi Emeritus, Congregation Ahavath Torah, Englewood, NJ